"Turkey is a friendly country and we have good trade and investment relations with it", al-Jubeir said in reply to a question during the Manama Dialogue security conference in Bahrain.
Khashoggi's Turkish fiancee, Hatice Cengiz, said she did not accept an invitation from US President Donald Trump to visit the White House after Khashoggi's murder because she thought it was aimed at influencing public opinion in his own favour. Last month, Germany approved 416 million euros ($470 million) worth of arms exports to Riyadh for 2018, however, Merkel said on Friday that "we need to clarify the background of this frightful crime and until that, we will not supply weapons to Saudi Arabia".
"The Khashoggi case has become hysteria, investigations take time and facts get determined as the investigation goes on", Jubeir said at a forum in the Bahraini capital of Manama.
Saudi Arabia, the Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt cut off travel and trade ties with Qatar in June 2017, accusing it of backing their archrival, Iran, and supporting terrorism. "We know that people exceeded their authority and we know that we're investigating them", he said.
The remarks came amid a Turkish investigation into the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi inside the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul.
How Western allies deal with Riyadh will hinge on the extent to which they believe responsibility for Khashoggi's death lies directly with Prince Mohamed and the Saudi authorities.
"I think that's the time for us to be able to find what we have in common and be able to understand each other more".
FACT CHECK: Saudi Arabia's changing narrative over journalist's murder
The Turkish authorities have been investigating a well in the garden of Saudi Arabia's consulate as part of the investigation. Addressing the conference on live television, the crown prince called the murder "a heinous crime that can not be justified".
But the body of Khashoggi, who was once an insider in Saudi royal circles, remains missing.
Jubeir said ties between Saudi Arabia, the world's top oil exporter, and the United States are "ironclad" and praised what he described as the "rational, realistic" foreign policy of the current US administration.
Speaking in Ankara, Erdogan, who has so far stopped short of directly blaming the Saudi government, called on Riyadh to reveal who ordered the killing and the whereabouts of Khashoggi's body.
Meanwhile, the Kremlin said Russian Federation believes that the Saudi royals were not involved in the murder.
They had first insisted Khashoggi left the consulate unharmed, then said he was killed in an argument that degenerated into a brawl.
The president also said it was "possible" Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman did not know about the killing.
"It was carried out poorly and the cover-up was one of the worst in the history of cover-ups", Trump said.
In particular the Washington Post, Khashoggi's former employer, has criticised the Saudi response in numerous fiery editorials.